Political System

The Indonesian political system is a republican republic, and the Indonesian Republic is a federal state in which the authorities are concentrated in the hands of the central government. The Republic of Indonesia was born in 1945 after a long period of Dutch colonial rule and Japanese occupation during the Second World War. The Founding Fathers established the form of a central government or a federal state to unify the Indonesian people from a diverse ethnic, religious and cultural mix distributed to thousands of islands.

Indonesia continued to adopt the federal government model for five years after independence until December 1949. It adopted the model of the United Republic of Indonesia for seven months until August 1950 but returned to the model of a central unitary state based on the 1945 Constitution. After the end of the new regime Indonesia (1966-1998), political and governmental institutions underwent comprehensive reforms. Four amendments to the 1945 Constitution were enacted in Indonesia in 1998-2000. Legislative, judicial and legislative authorities were reorganized and Indonesian governments faced pressure from the provinces to reduce centralization In which the provinces were given a form of autonomy as a form of decentralization of power and the subsequent transformation of the system into a republican, decentralized constitutional democratic system.

Executive Authority

The President is the head of the executive authority in Indonesia and according to the Constitution, the President is the head of state and head of government and commander-in-chief of the Indonesian armed forces and responsible for local administrations. The President and Vice-President shall be elected by direct vote for a term of five years and shall be governed for two consecutive terms, which was previously (before 2004) through the Shura Council.

The prime minister is appointed and has wide powers to manage the country independently in emergency situations.

The Constitution

The Indonesian Constitution was first written in July 1945 and then suspended after it was replaced by the Federal Constitution of 1949 and the Interim Constitution of 1950, and then the Constitution of 1949 was reinstated in July 1959.

The Constitution regulates the relationship between the status of the State and the other states, as well as determining the responsibilities, powers and functions of officials in the State, as well as regulating relations between state institutions (legislative, executive and executive).



The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body whose judges are appointed by the President of the Republic. The judiciary is composed of a different group of courts, which are distinguished according to jurisdiction.
Most civil cases are adjudicated before national courts and appeals are heard before the Supreme Court.
Other courts include:

  • The Commercial Court examines bankruptcy and insolvency cases.
  • The Administrative Court of the State and considers cases of administrative law against the government.
  • The Constitutional Court examines issues related to the legality of laws, general elections, the dissolution of political parties and the scope of authority of state institutions.
  • Religious courts to deal with legal cases.


political parties

The Indonesian arena has a wide range of political parties that differ in their intellectual and ideological dimensions and backgrounds. The number of parties that participated in the 1999 elections was about 48 parties ... As for 44 parties in the 2004 and 2009 elections, only 9 parties were able to get a quorum that allows them to enter Parliament and this percentage is 2.5%. In the elections Which (in) this year 2014 has reached the number of parties that participated (12) parties:

Political parties in Indonesia in light of the 2014 parliamentary elections

Number of parliamentary seats

percentage votes

Elections in 2014





Democratic Party




The Golkar Party




Indonesia's Great Movement Party (GRANDRA)




Democratic Party (ruling party for the period 2009-2014)




National Awakening Party (Islamic Party)



7 .57%

National Unity Party (Islamic Party)




Justice and Welfare Party (Islamic Party)




National Democratic Party (new party to participate for the first time)




United Development Party (Islamic Party)




Party of the conscience of the people


He did not win a parliamentary seat


Star and Crescent Party (Islamic Party)


He did not win a parliamentary seat


Indonesian Unity Party of Justice